” …I found in my own nature special adaptation for the contemplation of truth.
For I had a mind at once versatile enough for that most important object, I mean the recognition of similitudes and at the same time sufficiently steady and concentrated for the observation of subtle shades of difference.
I possessed the passion for research,
a power of suspending judgement with patience,
of meditating with pleasure,
of assenting with caution,
of correcting false impressions with readiness,
and of arranging my thoughts with scrupulous pains.
I had no hankering after novelty,
no blind admiration for antiquity.
Imposture in any shape I utterly detested.
For all these reasons I considered that my nature and disposition had as it were, a kind of kinship and connection with truth.”
برای استاد شدن در حقیقت جویی هم دو راه بیشتر وجود ندارد. تمرین کردن یازده ایده فرانسیس بیکن یکی از آنها می تواند باشد. راه دیگر قسم خوردن است.
Atlas shrugged is a 1080 pages 4 decades bestseller novel about Ayn Rand’s Philosophy: Objectivism.
The name “Objectivism” derives from the principle that human knowledge and values are objective: they are not created by the thoughts one has, but are determined by the nature of reality, to be discovered by man’s mind.
Atlas Shrugged was inspired by the author’s fury that people wasted the one capacity distinguishing them from other animals: reason. Those who no longer asked “Why am I alive?” or “What am I going to do or create that can justify my existence?” were to Rand as good as dead.
Here is the way she defines her philosophy in the book Atlas Shrugged:
“My philosophy, in essence, is the concept of man as a heroic being, with his own happiness as the moral purpose of his life, with productive achievement as his noblest activity, and reason as his only absolute.”
This book may be a very long one to read but like other great novels its a world you enter rather than a book you read. Atlas Shrugged holds a person’s greatest duty to be the appreciation of the joy of being alive.
Se–tus Empiricus ( I don’t want to get my blog filtered because of the beautiful name of a Greek philosopher!) has the honour of being the first philosopher to define dogmatikos in his book “Outlines of Pyrrhonism” as:
“one who in philosophical investigations believes that he has discovered the truth”
Scepticism which had been born centuries before Empiricus, was rediscovered and articulated beatifully by him in the late second century A.D.:
The original sceptic was a strong-minded philosopher who wanted to get at the truth, as a way of settling the discrepancies or disagreements which troubled him in his experience of the world. As a result of his investigations he found that he was faced not only with conflicting appearances but also with conflicting appearances of equal weight; his inability to adjudicate between them resulted in his suspending judgement, and this turned out to give him what he had been looking for all along—freedom from disturbance(ataraxia).
The crucial notions in this account are:
Disturbance or aporia in the face of conflicting appearances.
Philosophical investigation of them.
Attempts to settle the discrepancies by adjudicating between them.
Discovering the reason why they cannot be settled, that is, the equal weight of the conflicting appearances.
suspension of judgement as the cure for the initial disturbance or aporia.
Empiricus considers three basic approaches to epistemology:
- The “dogmatists” assert that truth is discoverable.
- The “academics” deny that truth is discoverable. (there is a good overlap between dogmatists and academics in our day and age!)
- The “sceptics” suspend judgment and continue to search for conditions under which truth may be discovered.
Maybe the world needs more sceptics to get rid of more disturbances.
Maybe the world needs more maybe.